Bengaluru ( Bangalore ) Karnataka
Bangalore officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of about 8.42 million and a metropolitan population of about 8.52 million, making it the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India. Located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau, at a height of over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, Bangalore is known for its pleasant climate throughout the year. Its elevation is the highest among the major large cities of India.
A succession of South Indian dynasties, the Western Gangas, the Cholas and the Hoysalas, ruled the present region of Bangalore until in 1537 CE, Kempé Gowda – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bangalore. In 1638, the Marāthās conquered and ruled Bangalore for almost 50 years, after which the Mughals captured and sold the city to the Mysore Kingdom of the Wadiyar dynasty. It was captured by the British after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, which was governed as part of British India. Following India’s independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, and remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006.
Bangalore is known as the “Silicon Valley of India” because of its role as the nation’s leading information technology (IT) exporter. Indian technological organizations ISRO, Infosys and Wipro are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. It is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore, National Institute of Design, Bangalore (NID R&D Campus), National Law School of India University (NLSIU) and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS). Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city. The city also houses the Kannada film industry. As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Bangalore confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. With a gross domestic product (GDP) of $83 billion, Bangalore is ranked fourth in India by overall GDP contribution, after only Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata.
Vidhana Soudha Bangalore
The Suvarna Vidhana Soudha, named so to monumentalize the Golden Jubilee of the formation of the state of Karnataka, was inaugurated on 11 October 2012. It is the second legislative building of the government of Karnataka and is situated in the district of Belgaum.
Overview of t Suvarna Vidhana Soudha
The building area is around 60,398 m² and sprawls across 127 acres of land. The Suvarna Vidhana Soudha is a four-storied structure with an Assembly Hall that can house up to 300 people, a Council chamber that can seat 100 people, a Central Hall that can accommodate 450 people and has 38 chambers for ministers and an additional 14 conference rooms. Moreover, there are other meeting halls, banquet halls and secretariats.
The main structure is crowned by a mammoth dome and there are 6 smaller domes dotted around the building. The construction costs for the building ran up to around Rs. 400 Crore. The Suvarna Vidhana Soudha is built along the lines of the Vidhana Soudha in Bangalore
History of Suvarna Vidhana Soudha
There has been tension between the state and the neighbouring state of Maharashtra over the ownership of Belgaum district. The construction of the second legislative assembly in Belgaum is seen by many as a reaffirmation of the claim by the government of Karnataka.
The initial allotment of funds was done in 2007. It was only in 2009, the current site of construction was finalised and the building process started. It was completed in 2012 after several lags, and inaugurated by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee. On the 67th Independence Day falling on 15 August 2013, the national flag was unfurled at the Suvarna Vidhana Soudha by the Deputy Commissioner.
The Cubbon Park has a history of over 100 years. It was established in the year 1870 by Sri John Meade, the then acting Commissioner of Mysore. The vast landscape of the park was conceived by Major General Richard Sankey, the then Chief Engineer of the State. As a mark of honour to Sri John Meade, the park was initially named as “Meade’s Park” and subsequently it was called the Cubbon Park. Since the inception of the park, it was developed and improved by adding new structures and features. In the year 1927, the park was officially renamed as “Sri. Chamarajendra Park” to commemorate the Silver Jubilee of Sri. Krishnaraja Wodeyar’s rule in Mysore State.
Cubbon Park is under the control of the Department of Horticulture. The Deputy Director of Horticulture (Cubbon Park) is responsible for the administration and maintenance of the park.
Although no specific events are organized by the Department within the Cubbon Park area, regular shows are conducted at the Dancing Musical Fountain, LRDE. Two shows are organized everyday from 7.00 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. and 8.00 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. each lasting for half an hour. It is closed on every Monday and Second Tuesday of the month.
Lal Bagh Botanical Garden is considered to be one of the most diverse botanical garden in South Asia. It is located in the southern part of the city, about 4 km from Vidhana Soudha and M.G. Road (GEO 12.97 degree N 77.56 degree E). Lalbagh has four approach gates.
The main gate is at the North facing towards Subbaiah circle, the West gate is towards Basavanagudi, the South gate is towards Jayanagar and the East gate is towards the Double Road.
Lal Bagh Botanical Garden was commissioned by the ruler of Mysore, Hyder Ali. Hyder Ali started building the Garden of Lal Bagh in the year 1760 and his son Tipu Sultan completed the garden. The garden derived its name ‘Lal Bagh’ because of a collection of red roses that remain blooming all through the year in this garden. Lal Bagh Gardens was known Rose and Cypress Garden till 1856. King Hyder Ali’s father was in the service of Dilawar Khan, Viceroy of Moguls. Dilawar Khan had a passion for setting up many gardens across Mysore. Among them the famous ones are Mogul gardens at Sira near Tumkur, Lalbagh at Srirangapatna, a garden at Malavalli, Lalbagh Gardens in Bangalore.
Lal Bagh is a 240 acre (971,000 sq.m. – almost 1 km²) Garden and is located on the southern part of Bangalore. It holds a number of flower shows, especially on the Republic Day (26th January). The garden has over 1,000 species of flora.
The Glass House, modeled on London’s Crystal Palace (now re-modeled with a different layout), is the center of attraction. Lal Bagh is a 240 acre (971,000 sq.m. – almost 1 km²) Garden and is located on the southern part of Bangalore. It holds a number of flower shows, especially on the Republic Day (26th January). The garden has over 1,000 species of flora. The Glass House, modeled on London’s Crystal Palace (now re-modeled with a different layout), is the center of attraction. Hyder Ali laid out these famous botanical gardens and his son added horticultural wealth to them by importing trees and plants from several countries like Cape Town, Mauritius, Turkey Tenerife, Persia, Kabul and other places Nurtured by Tippu Sultan, Hyder Ali’s son. The Lal Bagh Gardens were commissioned by the 18th century and over the years it acquired India’s first lawn-clock and the subcontinent’s largest collection of rare plants. The garden also has trees that are over 100 years old.
Lal Bagh is currently under the aegis of the Directorate of Horticulture, Government of Karnataka. The Directorate is housed amidst the splendid environs of the botanical garden. Today it has been an internationally renowned centre for scientific study of plants and botanical artwork and also conservation of plants. Formal and informal styles dominate the garden in perfect harmony, which is a testimony to the beauty of nature. Nearly 673 genera and 1,854 species of plants are found in Lalbagh. The collection of the plants has made it a veritable treasure house.
Visvesvaraya Industrial and Technological Museum
Visvesvaraya Industrial and Technological Museum, Bangalore (VITM), a constituent unit of National Council of Science Museums (NCSM), Ministry of Culture, Government of India, was established in memory of Bharat Ratna Sir M. Visvesvaraya. A modest building with a built up area of 4000 sq. mtrs., was constructed in the serene surrounding of the Cubbon Park, housing various industrial products and engines, which was opened by the first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on 14.07.1962. The first gallery set up at VITM on the theme ‘Electricity” was opened to the public on 27.07.1965 by the then Union Minister for Information & Broadcasting & Bharat Ratna Indira Gandhi.
VITM has a Dinosaur Corner with mobile app facility & a 1:1 scale replica of the Wright Brothers’ Flyer “Kitty Hawk” along with ‘Flyer Simulator’ providing an immersive and entertaining experience to the visitor. The ‘Science on a Sphere’ at VITM, the only one in Asia, is a large visualization system that uses multimedia projections to display animated data on the sphere converting it into an immersive animated globe showing dynamic, animated images of the atmosphere, ocean’s and land area of a planet, combined with narration. VITM has 7 permanent exhibition galleries titled Engine Hall, Fun Science, Electrotechnic, Space – Emerging Technology in the Service of Mankind, Biotechnological Revolution, BEL Hall of Electronics and Children Science.
VITM has Mobile Science Exhibition with 24 participatory exhibits mounted on a bus. Launched in the year 1970, the Mobile Science Exhibition travels through the length and breadth of the whole of South India. Simultaneously, VITM organises several education extension activities to supplement science education in the schools like Science Demonstration Lectures, Hobby Centres, Sky Observation Programmes, Popular Science Lectures, Teachers Training Programmes etc., for the benefit of students and new programmes like Science Fairs, Science Seminars, Planetarium Programmes, Science Drama Festival, Story Telling and Special programs in commemoration of achievements in science and technology. During this period the first HAM Radio station was also set up in VITM and that became a passion for the children and adult alike.
Between 1982 and 1993, NCSM set up three more science centers at Gulbarga (Karnataka) in 1984, Tirunelveli (Tamil Nadu) in 1987 and Tirupati in 1993, which are functioning directly under the administrative control of VITM. Thus, VITM became the southern zone headquarters of NCSM.
While celebrating its Golden Jubilee during the year 2014-15, VITM stands tall as a major landmark in the city of Bangalore attracting people from all walks of life with the visitor footfall touching 1 million. It is a matter of pride that the cumulative visitor footfall to the Museum for the past 50 years has crossed 4 crores.
VITM has been assigned with the task of setting up new science centres in the Southern Zone by NCSM. The Regional Science Centres at Dharwad, Coimbatore and a Sub-Regional Science Centre & Planetarium at Puducherry were developed and handed over to the respective State Governments/UT. All these new Science Centres are equipped with the state-of-art exhibits and activities that children can perform and learn science in an out of school mode. VITM is currently assigned with the task of setting up a Regional Science Centre at Mysore.
During the years, VITM has striven to fulfill its objectives of stimulating interest in science education among children and adults alike and to encourage them to pursue career in pure sciences. Examples of many young talents guided at VITM, who have reached new heights in their career in the field of Science and Technology, are legion.
Iskcon Temple in Bangalore
ISKCON Bangalore is a charitable society with the objective of propagating Krishna Consciousness all over the world, as explained by Srila Prabhupada, whose teachings are based on Bhagavad-gita and Srimad Bhagavatam. The society was registered in the year 1978 under the Karnataka Societies Registration Act, 1960. The objects of the society are derived from the Seven Purposes of ISKCON as stated by Srila Prabhupada.
ISKCON Temple LandIn 1987, the society was operating from a rented house in Bangalore. In the year 1987, the leaders of the society applied to Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) for allotment of a land to construct a grand temple and cultural complex. The land was allotted on August 3, 1988 – a 7-acre hillock, which is nothing but a huge piece of monolithic rock that cannot be converted into sites. The BDA described it as “karaab land” (waste land). A temporary shed was created to set up a make-shift temple and the Deities of Sri Sri Krishna Balarama moved to this shed on the appearance day of Lord Balarama (September 1988).
iskcon temple historySri Madhu Pandit Dasa, the president of the ISKCON Bangalore Society, is a qualified civil engineer from IIT (Mumbai) and applied his knowledge to conceive a wonderful temple for Krishna with the help of Sri Jagat Chandra Dasa (a devotee who was also an architect and product engineer from IIT – Mumbai). The unique combination of glass and gopuram, represents a fusion between majestic traditional stules and bold new aesthetics.
iskcon temple entranceThe original simple temple design started in 1990 was estimated to cost Rs.10 crore gave way to a more stunning, unique architectural model that cost Rs.32 crores. The construction started in 1990. 600 skilled craftsmen spent more than 10 million man-hours to construct this architectural wonder. 32,000 cubic meters of stone, 131,250 tons of cement and 1,900 tons of steel were used in the construction. Subsequently the temple construction was completed in 1997.
The temple and cultural complex was inaugurated by the then President Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma on May 31, 1997.
shankar dayal sharmaDr Shankar Dayal Sharma said, “It gives me immense pleasure to associate myself with the inauguration of this Center For Advancement of Culture of International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) here in Bangalore. This magnificent complex, a blend of tradition and modernity, is a symbol of the dedication and devotion of ISKCON to the cause of bhakti and service. It is an architectural landmark. I congratulate all those who have worked tirelessly to set up this splendid edifice.
Bannerghatta National Park
The Bannerghatta Biological Park, popularly known as BBP, has been an integral part of Bannerghatta National Park and emerged out as an independent establishment during the year 2002. It is in order to meet the growing demand for eco-recreation, eco-tourism and conservation, an area of 545.00 Ha of forest from National park was set aside to constitute as Biological Park originally and later extended to 731.88 Ha
Bannerghatta Biological Park is located about 22 Kms south of Bengaluru city. It is one among the few places in the world where wilderness is preserved so close to a big city. It is having different units such as Zoo, Safari, Butterfly Park and Rescue Center (Conservation of captive animals).
Bannerghatta National Park, near Bangalore, Karnataka, was founded in 1971 and declared as a national park in 1974. In 2002 a portion of the park, became a biological reserve, the Bannerghatta Biological Park. It is a popular tourist destination with a zoo, a pet corner, an animal rescue centre, a butterfly enclosure, an aquarium, a snake house and a safari park. There are ancient temples in the park for worship and it is a destination for trekking. The Zoo Authority of Karnataka, the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, and the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and Environment (ATREE) are collaborating agencies. Within the national park area are six rural villages enclosed within three large enclosures for sheep and cattle farming.